Competitive or threatening scenarios. 31 Freud wrote that a number of individuals

reported that they experience the first signs of delight in their genitals
during fighting or wrestling with playmates. Erections of human members are
Often in association with aggressive or awful dream situations. It’s been
Stressed that member-exhibition can have a purely competitive job, and that the
contraction of the muscular tissue of the human member, causing the erection,
may happen without sexual arousal, as an expression of aggression. 32
Many scholars point out that the erect member may symbolize dominance and
power. Bronze Age people of Scandinavia and northern Italy equated phallic
power with the power of the spear, the sword and the ax as is clear from their
petroglyphs. Other military things, notably clubs, can carry comparable
phallic symbolism. The club of Legba, the phallic god of African Dahomey,
was many times carved as a phallus and was regarded as an offensive weapon.33
The giant prehistoric body cut in the chalk downs near Cerne Abbas in England
is ithyphalic and carries, like Heracles, a club. 34 Supernatural power is regularly
29. Wolfgang Wickler, “Socio-Sexual Signs,” in Morris, PrimaleEthology, pp. 1 I I, 116; Burkert,
and History. p. 45 (quote); H. Detley et al., “Studies in Social and Sexual Behavior of the Squirrel Monkey
(Saimiri Scireus),” Folia Primarologica I (1963): 49, 62.
30. H. Hooton, “The Value of Primate Studies in Anthropology,” Human Biology 26 (1954): 179-88.
31. Wickler, “Socio-Sexual Signals,” p. 128. Paul D. MacLean, “Awesome Findings Relevant to the Evolution of
Psycho-Sexual Functions of the Brain,”Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 135 (1962): 296 wrote: “One sees
combative behavior even in the nursing babe, that will angrily fight the breast if no milk is forthcoming, and at
the same time develop penile erections.”
32. S. Freud, Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex. Trans. by A. A. Brill (New York, 1948). p. 68; Ernest
Hartman. The Biology of Dreaming (Springfield, Mass., l967), p. 189; idem, Sleep and Dreaming (Boston.
1970). p. 209; Vanggaard. Phallos, p. 74.
33. Vanggaard, Phallos. p. 14; A. B. Ellis, Ewe-Speakin,g Peoples, pp. 41-42. Also see E.R.E.. S.V.
34. Rawsom, Simple Eroric Art. p. 73. The idea that the phallus symbolizes power is still common among
some primitive tribes. In British New Guinea when the harpoon maker selects a. tree which appears fit for the
making of a harpoon shaft he presses his erect phallus against the trunk of the tree so the harpoon shaft might
be straight, strong and perfect (See Landman, Kiwai Papuans of British New Guinea, p. 120).


Journal of Sport History, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Winter, 1985)

conceptualized by the Apaches as phallic in origin. In addition the Apaches
equate arrow and phallus within their regular conversation. 35
There exists a big phallus symbolism that according to some authorities
even contains sceptre, mace, etc. The Egyptian king of the gods Amon-Re is
depicted in the temple at Karnak with an extremely large erect phallus3(j Osiris, the
protector of Egypt, was represented on statuary with the phallus exposed and
erect. The exaggerated sexual organs of the early Roman, Greek and Egyptian
phallic deities are in agreement with the importance attached to sexual virility
and power. The Greek herms shared a message of power and protection.
Even the herms that Hipparchos, son of Pisistratos set up in 530 B.C. between
the village and market place, “while showing moral epigrams, marked the
territory of the tyrant.” In ancient Scandinavia the statue of god Frey or Frico
was equipped with a big phallus. In the National Museum of Copenhagen
There’s a wooden picture of a phallic god from the Celtic Iron Age.37
The phallic sign was also a gesture against the evil eye and ailment. In some
cases the exhibition of the phallus as a means of fighting the effects of the evil
eye took a realistic feature, as in the baring of the sexual organs, and there can be
little doubt that among some cultures, and on special occasions nudity is
practiced with this particular objective in view. 38 Amulets of phallic nature were, and
still stay in some parts of the world, the most common for the prevention of
Disorder and the protection from death in conflict, evil spirits, evil eye and other
supernatural catastrophes. They have been made and worn throughout Europe, as well
as in India, China and Japan as supernatural energizers.39
35. L. Bryce Bayer, “Stone as a Symbol in Apache Folklore, ” in Fantasy and Symbol: Studies in Anthropology Interpretation ed. R. H. Hook (London-Fresh York, 1979). pp. 223-25.
36. Wickler, “Socio-Sexual Signals,” 129-3 I, f. 17. For on the phallic symbolism in Egypt and Italy, see
Elworthy, Evil Eye, pp. 153-55.
37. Scott, Phallic Worship, p. 55; Burke & Construction and History, p. 40 (quote); Vanggaard, Phallos, pp.
84-85: E.R.E., S.V. “Phallism.”